不管皇冠365官方App是否注意到，颜色无处不在. 从白色的办公室墙壁, 杂货店的灰色瓷砖地板或蓝天, 很难想象一个没有颜色的世界. With color all around us during our waking hours, how does it affect how we feel and behave? 皇冠365官方App是否意识到这些感觉，或者颜色是否在无意识的层面上影响皇冠365官方App?
皇冠365官方App很少考虑它, but the variety of color we see can impact many things from the foods we eat (would you eat a black orange?皇冠365官方App在闪光灯下的表现(我身后是不是有一辆救护车??) or which clothes we choose to wear (am I going to a professional meeting or on a romantic date?). 为什么颜色能给生活增添一点额外的乐趣呢?
关于颜色如何影响皇冠365官方App的情绪(e.g. 贾利勒、、、 & Said, 2012; Naz & 艾普,2004). 理解皇冠365官方App是如何沿着积极或消极的尺度来理解颜色的, warm or cool has been done to comprehend how color make us feel in certain situations (Singh, 2006). 例如, understanding how colors make us feel in shopping/ retail/restaurant environments has been an area of interest for marketing groups to encourage appetite or to help customers feel relaxed (Singh, 2006).
在这篇文章中, 探讨了颜色感知的基础, 以及颜色是如何被用来抑制或支持某些行为的. You will also learn about how color can be used in food so that we eat with our eyes even before we taste. Finally, cultural considerations regarding color meaning and preferences will be discussed.
皇冠365官方App看颜色的能力取决于光的波长. The light wavelengths that are in the visible spectrum for humans range from 400-700nm (See 图1.). 有许多波长是皇冠365官方App的眼睛不敏感的, 比如x射线或无线电波, 因此皇冠365官方App看不到它们. The wavelengths of light that we can see are absorbed by cones in the back of the eye where the retina is located. 对颜色和亮光敏感的感光细胞被称为视锥细胞. 视网膜上的其他感光细胞是杆状细胞, 哪些对颜色不敏感，在弱光条件下工作得更好.
色彩视觉是视觉科学领域内的一个完整的科学研究领域, whereas examining how color influences us and how we use color to display our internal state is of interest to psychology. 皇冠365官方App不仅在美学上欣赏色彩斑斓的织锦, 皇冠365官方App也会对特定的颜色赋予不同的情感(纳兹 & 艾普,2004). 各种颜色甚至被用来试图影响那些看到它的人的行为. 例如, prisons have used Baker-Miller pink (see 图2) on the walls as a method of abating aggression among inmates (Schauss, 1979). Schauss (1979, 1981) also reported that the color pink actually inhibits muscular strength and aggression in prison populations. 有趣的是, some authors have criticized this finding as colors on the pink-end tend to be associated with red or orange which are often viewed as bold, arousing colors and not traditionally associated with having a calming effect (Pellegrini, Schauss, & 米勒,1981). Other studies on using pink in jail cells only found a reduction in aggressive behavior in the first few months of its use, 而攻击性则随着时间的推移而增加(佩莱格里尼等., 1981). There has been recent work that has questioned the usefulness of pink when implemented in prisons (Genschow, 奥利弗等人., 2015).
监狱外的人口, 研究人员利用颜色来了解它是如何影响佩戴者周围的人的. 在灵长类动物中，红色通常被视为优势的标志, 而在其他情况下，同样的颜色可以被视为一种警告(魏德曼), Burt, Hill & 巴顿,2015). 有趣的是, some research suggests that athletes who wear red have an advantage in sporting outcomes due to the color of their uniforms alone (Hill & 巴顿,2005). 此外, men are rated as more aggressive and more dominant when pictured in red clothes versus gray or blue (Weidman et al., 2015 ).
皇冠365官方App喜欢穿蓝色的衣服, blacks and grays for business affairs while more vibrant colors can be used in other social situations. 从进化的角度来看，红色可以被视为吸引的标志(罗伯茨，2010). Several experiments by Elliot and Niesta (2008) demonstrated that men rate women in red to be more attractive. Another example is a study by Guéguen and Jacob (2014) where men tipped waitresses more if they were wearing the color red. Another study has shown that women are more likely to favor a red outfit over a blue or green outfit if they believe they will be conversing with an attractive man (Elliot, Greitemeyer & Pazda, 2013).
几十年来, food color has been studied to understand how people associate certain foods with color and whether people will buy food based on color (Garber, Hyatt, & 斯塔尔,2000). Some examples of where colors violated what people expected from their food include clear cola or purple/green ketchup. 这些食物的改变被广泛认为是失败的(e.g. http:// www.businessinsider.Com/major-food-flops-2011-1)，这些产品已不再销售.
研究人员发现，食物颜色是味道关联的有力指标. In fact, certain foods are linked to a color and research has indicated that when beverage color and flavor are incongruent, 人们经常会把味道和颜色相混淆(Spence等., 2010). There have also been consistent results regarding the addition of red coloring to foods and people rating the food or beverages as being sweeter the redder it appears (e.g. Clydesdal等., 1992; Pangborn, 1960).
现在世界都被互联网连接起来了, people from different cultures can interact with each other at any time or purchase goods from the other side of the globe with the click of a button. This leads to the question if there are any differences in color associations across cultures. 在选择开发新产品时，是否要考虑颜色?
Research on color preferences in general has indicated that there are indeed differences in cultural color preferences and meanings (Eysenck, 1941; Reddy & 班纳特,1985). 例如, 红色在中国文化中意味着好运, whereas, 它对美国人意味着危险(Cyr, 2008). 同样，蓝色在中国文化中也有邪恶的意思(阿克凯，达尔金， & 博, 2011; Schmitt, 1995)但, in other societies blue is the most preferred color and is often regarded as a happy color by children (Camgoz, Yener, & Guvenc, 2001; Cimbalo, Beck & Sendziak, 1978). The color white is associated with purity and joy in India, China, Turkey and the United States. 有趣的是, the US is the only country of the four that does not associate white with death (Akcay et al., 2011).
Understanding cultural preferences relating to color and color affiliations is important to bear in mind as the global marketplace becomes more connected. 如果一个公司打算在一个新的文化生态系统中销售产品, it would be worthwhile performing research on how to use colors to market the product to new, 潜在买家.
皇冠365官方App周围到处都是颜色，可能被用来影响皇冠365官方App的感觉, 鼓励特定行为, 作为一个社会指标或帮助识别食物和味道. Understanding how color or other external stimuli affect us is an important study which can lead to greater insights into human behavior. As researchers strive to better understand the underpinnings of color and its influence, 皇冠365官方App可以利用这些研究结果来帮助装饰房间内部, 推销食物，搭建文化桥梁.
Dr. Thomas Baker is a Senior Customer Success Manager at iMotions who works with clients to help them achieve their research goals. 在加入imotion之前. 贝克获得了博士学位.D. 加拿大多伦多约克大学的心理学教授.
这篇文章最初发表在Insights杂志上, 皇冠365官方App members have access to the full archive of this quarterly magazine on neuromarketing. 有兴趣加入? 检查选项