隐性措施是什么? 如何使用?

Women already knew it long before; when you ask a man if he likes your dress, 他回答的时间有点长, his actual thoughts may be something entirely different from what comes out of his mouth as a reply. Femke van Zandvoort (皇冠365官方App) collected some views on IAT and related issues via interviews with some of the leading practitioners who apply this methodology


如果你明确询问别人的态度, 性格或其他特征你不一定会得到真实的答案. 这部分是因为人们会歪曲事实,把自己描绘得更好, and partially because people are often unable to accurately reflect on their attitudes and behavior. Duncan Smith of Mindlab says the validity of self-report is also compromised because many people are completely oblivious to their characteristics and do not always have conscious access to what drives their decision-making. 通过隐性措施,这些问题可以被绕过.

隐式测量是一系列旨在捕捉人们潜在联想的技术, 动机, 信念和态度. 这些技术最初是在学术界发展起来的, 主要是作为衡量社会态度的一种方式, 比如人们没有意识到的潜在偏见和刻板印象, 或者不愿意表达, 因为他们不想显得有偏见, Neurostrata的达伦·布里杰说.

史密斯解释说,皇冠365官方App经常排序, categorize and link concepts; black/white, 男性/女性, 热/冷. 这在皇冠365官方App的大脑中是非常快速、高效和自动的. 史密斯:“基本上, we build a map of the world in our brain that allows us to make judgments and decisions without having to use as many resources. 隐式测试允许直接洞察这种表示映射, 以及他们如何受到外部世界的影响.”


In general the research techniques that have been adopted by the marketing and advertising community have been those based on reaction times. 这些技术基于两个关键原则. 首先, 每当皇冠365官方App看到一个词或图像, all the things that we associate with it (whether we are conscious of these associations or not) become primed. 也就是说,如果有机会,他们会更快更容易地浮现在脑海中. 其次,当一个人被赋予一个任务,包括他们认识一个词或图像, they will recognize it quicker if they are first shown a word or image that they mentally associate with it. 布里杰:“换句话说,如果他们被启动,它会加快他们的识别反应速度. Hence in these tasks reaction speed becomes a measure of the degree of association between two things, 比如一个单词和一个品牌标志.”

有 many different implicit testing models but the main ones used in the context of neuromarketing are semantic priming, 一个简单呈现的单词或图像被呈现, 内隐联想测验(IAT). IAT主要用于品牌定位、品牌追踪和广告前/后评估. 在一个典型的语义启动测试中, a visual word or “prime” (例如 a possible brand attribute word such as ”fashionable”) will appear on screen for a few milliseconds. 在这之后', 两个随机的目标之一(例如“Burberry”或“Louis Vuitton”)将紧随其后.

Gemma Calvert of Neurosense explains that the tests are performed by means of computerized web-based applications that force respondents to react extremely quickly to words or images flashed up on the computer screen. Calvert: “The method exploits the fact that subconscious and conscious brain responses (referred to by Daniel Kahneman as “System I” and “System 2” respectively in his popular book ”Thinking Fast and Slow”) occur within different timeframes. 因此,通过要求受访者迅速做出反应, 通常不到一秒, it is possible to capture the literal strength of association between different concepts and emotions that they have stored in their memory.”

Decode Marketing的Phil Barden强调,“隐性”与“无意识”是不同的。. Barden: “The main point is to distinguish between (a) the type of process being measured (automatic versus controlled) and (b) the type of measurement (direct versus indirect). The distinction between automatic and controlled processes is more meaningful than the indirect/direct distinction regarding measurement techniques. 关键是防止通过受控(系统2)过程来调整响应.”


Unconscious bias and stereotyping have been known since the 19th century but implicit memory was only studied in more detail in the 1980s. 最受欢迎的IAT是由心理学家安东尼·格林沃尔德(Anthony Greenwald)领导的团队在20世纪90年代开发的.

明略行的Sarah Walker提到了内隐联想测试(Greenwald等). 1998) is a social psychology measure designed to detect the strength of automatic association between concepts. 快速的回答意味着对一个主题的强烈联想. 联想越强,记忆中的想法联系就越紧密。”. 它最初是由格林沃尔德,麦吉, & Schwartz (1998) and is still widely deployed by psychologists as a method to understand intuitive responses.


Thom Noble of Neurostrata believes implicit measures are extraordinarily powerful as a neuro-tool: “As a hard core marketer, 我想说这是神经宇宙中最有用的工具.”

据沃克, implicit testing allows the assessment of attitude/cognition without requiring people to introspect and deliberate over their responses; in doing so, 隐式措施解决了显式措施的一些局限性. 例如, 他们更不容易受到反应偏差的影响,比如社会可取性(Fisher), 1993; Steenkamp、德容、 & 费利克斯, 2010), 并且可以帮助衡量那些可能是内省无法企及的反应(威尔逊), 2002).

随着时间的推移,这些测试不断发展,研究现在可以在平板电脑或智能手机上进行, 因此,参与者可以在自己选择的时间和环境中进行测试. 这对参与者来说是一种优势, 但这也使它成为研究人员负担得起的快速选择, 因为你不需要邀请团队到一个中心位置.

另一个优势, 据NEUROHM的Rafał Ohme报道, 客户是否更愿意使用内隐技术,而不是“硬神经”技术. Ohme:“这是邀请客户进入神经营销学世界的一个很好的起点. 有时客户仍然非常害怕微电压和脑电波, or even more scary; fMRI images. 相反,隐式给你的是你非常熟悉的东西. 它提供了绝佳的机会来洞察隐性潜意识, 没有脑电波的沉重.” Ohme mentions another benefit in that you can reach groups that you would never be able to invite to a central location. Ohme:“例如, 顶级私人银行高管永远不会与你进行小组讨论, 因为它需要太多的时间. 内隐反应时间, 他们只需要坐在电脑或智能手机前, 给你五分钟他们的时间.”


有, 然而, 测试也有一些限制, 除了一些一般市场研究的局限性之外. 史密斯解释说,其中的一个限制是,在单个基础上,输出不是100%准确的. 内隐得分高并不意味着一个人一定会有这样或那样的行为, but there is research showing that implicit scores can be used to better predict things such as voting behavior, 而不是单独使用明确的问题.”

A limitation according to Calvert is that implicit measures only capture responses to the attributes you choose to include, 而不是, 例如, 功能磁共振成像可以测量整个大脑的活动. In other words; implicit measures will give you answers to the questions you think are important. 因此,结果可能会产生误导.

Ohme认为反应时间最重要的是控制噪音. Ohme:“例如, 您必须控制表达式的长度, 因为当使用较长的表达式时, 回答这个问题需要更长的时间. 比如这个表达:" understand my needs ", 比“有趣”这个表达需要更长的时间来处理.“还有很多个体差异. 一般来说,有些人反应快,有些人反应慢. 这些问题可以通过在测试中加入校准阶段来解决. 然后你可以比较一个人的反应“单位”和另一个人的反应“单位”. 沃克支持这样的观点:“因为阅读和理解时间的差异, 这种方法的有效性仅限于单个单词, 与许多供应商的说法相反. 这意味着,可以用这种方式测量的关联类型有局限性.”

和, 最后, 尽管隐性措施提供了以前看不见的有价值的见解, 它不替换现有的方法. 正如Ohme所说:“它只是提供了第二层. 第一层是显式的,第二层是隐式的. 我认为含蓄是指好莱坞电影中出现的声音. 以前,你有无声电影. 现在,有了有声电影.”


根据布里杰, implicit measures are of particular use in some areas that have been traditionally hard to investigate, including testing early stage creative concepts for their ability to evoke desired feelings and associations, 多感官刺激(如声音和音乐), 以及模拟网站体验等体验领域.

隐性措施的使用肯定不再局限于营销部门的应用. Ohme解释道:“这为皇冠365官方App创造了全新的机会, 神经营销学家, 因为到目前为止,皇冠365官方App99%的客户都是营销人员. 通过反应时间,你可以为人力资源和销售部门打开大门, 你可以这样做, 例如, 衡量员工的满意度.”

来宝进一步表示,他们已经将其商业化,并将其扩展到招聘领域, 成本优化程序, premiumization, 服务设计, 多感官, 经验, 政治, 政府谈判策略/仲裁, 试镜, 铸造, 影视编剧和试点项目, 游戏和票房预测, 在别人.

全球有很多公司提供隐式测试, 例如Decode Marketing, NEUROHM, Neurosense, Neurostrata, Mindlab, 明略行, 和感知决策科学等等.

One of the largest implicit studies run to date was conducted by the 皇冠365官方App (neuro against smoking project). This study involved testing 4996 respondents across 24 countries (heavy and light smokers) in their first three years after reaching the legal age to purchase cigarettes in a given country. A neuropsychological implicit association test was conducted with its audience to uncover new valuable insights to the existing discussion on cigarettes warnings. The study found that pictorial health warning messages are more effective than text messages only and communication oriented toward harm done to self and others is more effective than warnings focused only on smokers’ health.. 有关这项研究的更多信息可以在皇冠365官方App网站上找到.


皇冠365官方App正处于神经营销学研究的突破阶段。”, 估计Ohme, “皇冠365官方App不再着迷于设备的可能性, 皇冠365官方App更着迷于从神经工具中获得的见解和专业知识.” If you compare the neuropresentations we had at the 神经学营销世界论坛 in Amsterdam with the ones in Sao Paulo, 纽约和巴塞罗那, 你会看到越来越多的演讲专注于见解和如何帮助你的客户, 而不是你使用的电极类型, 说Ohme. “So for the next Forum I hope we will be providing more and more solutions to our clients instead of questions. Those are for the academia; business wants solutions,” he concludes.


De Houwer和摩尔斯,2010年

法齐奥等., 1986


Greenwald等. 1998

格林沃尔德,McGhee & Schwartz, 1998; Gregg, 2008 Perkins, A.正手,米.格林沃尔德,.公司D., 2008,卡尼曼,2011

车道,Banaji Nosek, & Ranganath等人., 2008

Steenkamp、德容、 & 鲍姆加特纳,2010,威尔逊,2002


本文作者菲尔·巴顿(Phil Barden)是decode营销公司的总经理,著有《皇冠365官方App》一书. 《皇冠365官方App购买背后的科学原理》(威利,2013)

达伦·布里杰是即将出版的《皇冠365官方App》一书的作者, 2015年8月)

杰玛·卡尔弗特教授是 创始人 of Neurosense 集团

Thom Noble是全球独立思维科学咨询公司NeuroStrata的创始人兼首席执行官.

Rafal Ohme是 创始人 的Neurohm


莎拉·沃克(Sarah Walker)是明略行(明略行)的全球神经科学实践总监

本文(文字及图片内容)受版权保护. 仅供教育用途. 更多信息:神经营销学 & 商业协会.